The relationship between microbial infection and development of arthritis has been recognized for several decades in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA). The latter is significantly higher in Caucasian individuals with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27 gene.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prototypical chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by plaques of inflammation, demyelination, and gliosis disseminated in time (DIT) and space (DIS). The signs and symptoms depend on the location of the lesions within the brain and spinal cord.
Parkinson’s disease or PD, is the second commonest neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease. The estimated prevalence of PD is 0.3% in the general population, affecting 1 in 100 persons over age 60, and 3% of those age 80 or more. New cases of PD occur in up to 18 per 100,000 persons in the general population.
For the nearly 900 million older individuals worldwide, there has been an epidemiologic transition linking chronic illness in older age to increased dietary fat, salt and sugar diets, sedentariness, and tobacco use. This in combination with the transition toward urbanization and its profound demographic impact on traditional societies has been a recipe for epidemic rates of dementia we now observe.
There is a hierarchical control for the control of metabolic glandular function that begins in the brain. This occurs through the secretion of chemical release factors that arrive from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland via venous portal channels that in turn, secrete chemical messengers to the visceral organs causing them to release appropriate basal and stress levels of hormones.
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis is a serious and disabling disorder of children and adults. It affects millions of individuals in the United States (U.S.) and globally leading in significant disability, morbidity and occasionally mortality.